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26                                 SHIPPING PRACTICE

permission to take his vessel to Liverpool after leaving
London.

"Through" bills of lading are issued when ashipper wishes
the carrying company to make arrangements for a com-
plete journey, and these hills of lading in addition to the
agreement to carry goods from port to port include a
further journey (by sea or land) from the port of ship's
destination to a distant place. In this case the carrier
incorporates in the bill of lading a clause stating that the

goods are to be "transhipped and forwarded to...........

at ship's expense but at shipper's risk."

An additional charge is made for this extended journey,
and the carrier bears all expenses of shipping and tran-
shipping, but from the time the goods leave his care he
repudiates all responsibility for their safe carriage. This
extra journey is outside the contract of affreightment,
and the terms and conditions of the bill of lading do not
apply.

Since the repeal in 1949 of stamp duty on bills of lading,
copy bills (i.e. bills other than the number of bills to the
set) are stamped "Copy Bill of Lading—not negotiable"
or similar wording. In some cases different coloured bills
are used to distinguish copies from negotiable bills.

For bills of lading under charter-parties, the above con-
ditions apply with a few exceptions, the most important of
which is that the conditions of a bfll of lading are always
subservient to the charter-party clauses. When a charter-
party is issued, this is a contract pure and simple, and the
bill issued under such document is only a receipt with all
terms as per CHAETER-PAKTY. The effect of the Carriage
of Goods by Sea Act in this connection is dealt with fully
in the next chapter.

The Bill of Lading Act, 1855, is a small but valuable Act,
and its provisions are briefly—

(«} It gives the consignee or endorsee to whom the
property passes, all rights of suit as if the contract had been
made with him originally.
(fy It preserves the right of stoppage in fransitu, the